Smarter Cities Challenge 2017-18 winners announced and exciting results from the SCC Memphis project


Last Thursday was an exciting day for the Smarter Cities Challenge program. Atlantic Magazine featured the City of Memphis and their innovative approach to alleviating pressure on their overburdened 911 system. One out of every five phone calls to 911 in Memphis is a mistake. That results in costly, unnecessary trips to the emergency room. By applying technological solutions, the city is able to reduce the load on the system, while getting targeted care to those who need it. This is a result of the recommendations provided by the IBM Smarter Cities Challenge program.

“What we’re doing now, based on IBM’s recommendations, is a system wide approach. Let’s all work together as a group, so everybody is doing it the same way. I think that’s why we’re having such good success.” Andrew Hart, division chief for Emergency Medical Services at the Memphis Fire Department.

We also announced 5 more cities to benefit from the Smarter Cities Challenge (SCC) grant program.  Earlier this year, over 100 mayors applied for IBM’s support to help their cities tackle a pressing issue.  Congratulations to the 2017-18 Smarter Cities Challenge winning cities:

Busan, Korea; Palermo, Italy; San Isidro, Argentina; San Jose, USA; and Yamagata City, Japan. Each of these cities submitted compelling applications based on issues shared by many other cities. Our goal is that the work IBM and these cities do together can be shared broadly to help other cities tackle similar issues.

The announcement of these five projects makes all of us excited for the mayors, their staff, and the IBMers who are about to embark on this incredible journey.  By using some of IBM’s leading technologies such as Watson Analytics, and weather data from The Weather Company, an IBM Business, the IBM teams will be able to help tackle issues in public safety, immigration, affordable/sustainable energy, affordable housing and economic development.

Cities have evolved since the inception of the Smarter Cities Challenge program in 2010. They have become more sophisticated and are facing new, more complex issues.  With more and more of the world’s population moving into cities, it is imperative that cities address these new issues with sustainable, creative and technological solutions.

To the Smarter Cities Challenge 2017-18 mayors and city leaders, congratulations!  You are about to have some of IBM’s best and brightest work with you to tackle and address the key issues your cities are facing.  They will immerse themselves in your community and you will be amazed at the level of understanding they will gain about your challenge, the passion and dedication they will give, and the deep problem solving they will impart. We have no doubt that our colleagues will work tirelessly, with you, to ensure the recommendations they make are actionable.

Jen Crozier is Vice President, IBM Corporate Citizenship and
President, IBM International Foundation

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A letter to the Smarter Cities Challenge 2017 winners from The Honorable Jim Strickland, Mayor of Memphis

Jim Strickland

IBM is announcing the next round of winners of its Smarter Cities Challenge grants today, and, as mayor of a city that received one of these great pro bono consulting engagements just last year, I can speak from experience when congratulating the cities of Busan, Korea; Palermo, Italy; San Isidro, Argentina; San Jose, USA; and Yamagata City, Japan.

Many other cities competed to make the case as to why IBM should invest its time and expertise in helping them address these issues of local, critical importance. There could only be a limited number of winners, and you were in that elite group.

Having had the good fortune to be in your position, I can say confidently that you can expect truly transformational experiences when you work hand in glove with the experts from IBM. To the mayors and citizens of the cities announced today, think of it this way: Your IBM visitors are something like honorary citizens. They come in person from all over the world – because it’s very hard to get a true sense of a city’s essence over the telephone and computer – to truly understand the personality, quirks and strengths of your respective regions. Although nearly every waking hour will be spent thinking about and discussing the assignment you’ve given them, the IBM team members will immerse themselves fully in your culture and witness firsthand the qualities that make your regions so attractive. They will eat your cuisine (they loved our barbecue!), visit landmarks and cultural sites, chat with residents, and see firsthand the legacy and potential of your regions.

When the IBM team visited Memphis in early 2016, I had just begun my term. The collaboration was an excellent way for my administration to dive right in. The city had asked IBM to come because we felt as if we needed to take a more strategic, methodical, data-driven approach to the issue we identified, which, at its root, is public health.

See, over the years, we’ve found that our emergency ambulance service, provided by our fire department, became overwhelmed with too many telephone calls that were not true health emergencies. This made it challenging to dispatch paramedics in a timely way to those suffering from acute, life-or-death health problems. We found ourselves in this position because residents know that we are always going to take their phone calls seriously, and provide transportation to the hospital emergency room if necessary.

Therefore, it became difficult to provide ideal service because our ambulance corps’ territory had grown with the city’s boundaries, and had a limited budget with only so many dispatchers, ambulances and paramedics. We were facing $20 million annual shortfalls in our emergency services budget, yet annual ambulance trips had increased over five years by 24 percent – that’s more than 124,000 trips. While our population had stayed the same since the 1970s, the geographic area of our boundaries had roughly doubled.

But perhaps most daunting of all was an over-reliance on the ambulance service for basic, non-emergency calls. Too few patients were availing themselves of the primary care offered by providers to better manage chronic, long term health and related lifestyle concerns. This was putting sicker patients at risk of not receiving timely attention.

In short, we needed to rethink our entire approach to emergency health services.

As with all cities that apply for a Smarter Cities Challenge grant, we already had a lot of good ideas. But we needed IBM to help us identify and validate our most promising approaches, and to further flesh out specific details for their implementation. IBM showed us how different city agencies could pool and analyze information to identify our challenges, then make better joint decisions. The team showed us how we could use data in a more systematic way to make the case to enlist the help of third parties, such as health insurance companies and health care clinics.

As a result of this collaboration, we formed a steering committee co-led by the Memphis Fire Department. We recently launched a pilot program where we send a doctor and a paramedic trained in community health to those patients with chronic health conditions that aren’t immediately life threatening. These patients are ultimately guided to community clinics, where they can work with physicians to manage their conditions and improve their lifestyles. Over the course of about two months, we discovered that about 64 percent of ambulance callers were better suited for a long-term approach rather than an immediate emergency room visit. We’re training nurses to evaluate callers and follow up with them over the long term to ensure that they establish a relationship with doctors. Local hospitals support these initiatives, as they ease their caseloads and ensure that they can adequately treat the very sick. The IBM team also helped us create the basis of an education campaign that has made residents more aware of the consequences of better decision making.

We were very glad to have hosted the IBM team, which brought an outsider’s neutral perspective and a fresh set of eyes to evaluating our opportunities. I know well that there is a lot of hard work ahead of you – but I also know well just how valuable the IBM team will be as you make your cities even better places to live, work, and enjoy.

The Honorable Jim Strickland is the Mayor of Memphis, USA.

Related Resources:

IBM’s Smarter Cities Challenge to Help Five Cities Improve Services to Their Residents

The Atlantic – CityLab: Too Many People Are Calling 911. Here’s a Better Way

Read About the Memphis, USA Smarter Cities Challenge

Read More Blogs by Smarter Cities Mayors

Learn More About the IBM Smarter Cities Challenge

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The Internet of (African) Things

I was recently selected to work with a team of technology professionals on a Smarter Cities Challenge in the city of Abuja, Nigeria.  Smarter Cities are cities that interconnect citizens, government, businesses, and data to efficiently run city operations and meet the service needs of the citizens.  Similarly, the Internet of Things is the broader concept of interconnecting any device in any environment so that consumers of that data can benefit from services like situational awareness and data analytics.  In a sense, Smarter Cities and The Internet of Things are using technology to bring people together in a more harmonious way.

Before, arriving in Africa, I expected that my assignment would help me better understand how the Internet of Things could help interconnect the people and government of Abuja in a way that would improve the lives of everyday citizens.  As an African American on my first trip to Africa, I also expected a unique cultural experience that would more deeply connect me to the history of African Americans.  Growing up in American I learned the history of some of my ancestors who were taken from Africa and enslaved for a period that lasted for hundreds of years.  Although, I have embraced my ancestral connection to Africa, it has always felt distant and to some degree it has been an intangible Thing.  This changed for me the minute I landed in the city of Abuja.  One of the first things that stood out to me was the customary greeting I received from so many of the citizens of Abuja.  “You are welcome”, the people of Abuja, would consistently express in the most sincere and warm fashion.  I truly felt welcomed.  This experience continued until our first meeting with city officials and then it really started to hit me.  I was in the company of a host of warm-hearted  government officials and I began to feel something very unexpected.  These were mixed emotions to say the least, ranging from a sense of belonging and pride to a sense of returning to something that I never really knew or understood.  There was something else… something that was missing.  This was not obvious because it is something that I have never experienced before.  I was in a country being led by “Black People” that do not have the cloud of slavery hanging over their head.

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Thank yous and parting thoughts

My departure from Abuja is but a few hours away. Looking back at the past three weeks, I realize that my remarkable experiences in this town wouldn’t have been possible without the active support of many people.

Firstly, my wife Akila and the kids, who made do without me around. I owe you, big time.

My employer, IBM is a leader in corporate philanthropy and encourages IBMers to participate in programs such as the Corporate Service Corps (CSC) and the Smarter Cities Challenge (SCC), both of which I took advantage of. My manager Brian whole-heartedly supported my eagerness to participate.

My amazing SCC team members made the three weeks fun, and I learned from each of them.

IMG_5916Divine – boy, does she love white rice !

Divine, a quiet presence during our heated discussions, acted as the voice of calm and reason many a times when our patience would run out and tempers would rise. On more than one occasion, she played the peacemaker. She establishes an amazing connection with people in a short order. I am glad that I was able to help her on her Abuja Hash trek up to Asokoro – and I expect many more hiking stories from her.

IMG_5906The ultra-competitive Marvin

Marvin’s cool exterior hides a fiercely competitive spirit, evidenced by his swim challenge with the instructors at the pool. He took his time opening up, but once he gets going, he’s a hoot. As an African-American, his trip to Nigeria held special meaning to him, and his farewell speech rings in my head.

IMG_5917Maria – did someone say “wine” ?

Maria’s conscientious, meticulous preparation and initiative kept the team moving. Her fitness mania kept me on my toes. She’s a fun team mate and an adventurous person. Her love of spicy food was an eye opener. To get her animated, just get her some good wine.

IMG_5905Sameh loves nothing more that chilling with a hookah and talking politics

Sameh, though the youngest of the lot, has a quiet dignity of manner and gravity of thought that set him apart. As a multi-talented musician, he jammed with the piano players at hotel lobbies and drummed with the wedding musicians. His ultra-liberal word-view combined with his loquaciousness resulted in several memorable chats on global politics. His conversations with Uber drivers revealed a lot about his ability to connect with people.

IMG_5904Remi – Real-life Energizer bunny

Remi, the Corporate Citizenship manager for IBM West Africa, was critical to the success of the team. Her passion for the project and her energy levels were intimidating. To all observers, it was evident that she believed she was doing more than a job – she was helping Nigeria rise up to its potential.

IMG_5915Ann – always helpful, always cheerful

Ann, the Country Manager for Pyxera, was a quite presence in the background – she kept everything going smoothly. The notable lack of unpleasant surprises during our stay shows how well she did her job. The Pyxera team in the US, particularly Kotheid and Rachel, arranged our travel and prepped us during the pre-work flawlessly.

IMG_5882Dapper dude Israel

Israel was by our side everyday – an aide who provided local knowledge and color in our interactions with Abuja and Abujans. His stylish outfits were a daily treat, too.

IMG_5891Nasiru – natural-born hiker

Nasiru drove us around cheerfully, and on our Abuja Hash hike, led us back to civilization.

Allison (left), John & Judith (right)

Allison, John and Judith, from the Permanent Secretary’s office, were tremendously helpful in all or our dealings with the FCTA.

IBM Nigeria, particularly Judy, who pretty much acted as our local liaison and Dipo, the Country Manager, deserve my deep gratitude.

The IBM Corporate Citizenship team in charge of the Smarter Cities Challenge program, Celia and Anne, make this program work. They are primarily responsible for us being here.

My blogging career will go back to hibernation after this is posted. What I learned from my previous stint blogging was that while I enjoyed the act of writing, the pleasure of looking back and reliving my experiences were an unexpected bonus. I have no doubt that I will come back to relive my experiences in Abuja through this blog.

To those of you who followed me along on this blog, thank you.

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The final stretch – Week 3

The final week! We’re scheduled to present to the Minister of the Federal Capital Territory, Hon. Muhammad Musa Bello, on Thursday afternoon – we have a lot to do, and we’re running out of time. We ramp up our effort level several notches. Monday morning, we make progress in refining our recommendations and our storyline. Since we are presenting to a federal minister, we take pains to rein in the natural tendency to describe a lot of the detail behind our thinking and keep things as brief as possible. We make huge strides to getting to a crisply-summarized slide deck of about a dozen pages.  We head out to dinner at the Dunes Restaurant – good Lebanese fare and great wine.

Remi’s back in town on Tuesday and she’s got some big updates. The meeting with the minister has been moved ahead to Wednesday – so there goes a day of preparation! In addition to the meeting with the Minister, there’s a session on Thursday with the heads of all the Departments and their leadership team. All day, we work at a frenzied pace – and the summary presentation gets more and more polished and emerges late in the day ready for prime time. We are confident about our recommendations to improve FCTA revenue performance – it was built up from a rigorous on-the-ground understanding of the issues and validated quite extensively. The recommendations cover FCTA organizational culture, technology infrastructure, process improvement, policy reform and other strategic initiatives. We bolster our recommendations with success stories of other city and regional governments that have implemented programs similar to what we were recommending. Everyone’s exhausted, so we order in some Indian food from Wakkis.

Wednesday – D-day is nigh! We start work early. We have a talk with Remi and a call with Celia to clarify the team’s role and to ensure that we act within the strict bounds of conduct required of IBM’s corporate philanthropy efforts. We rehearse our message delivery. By noon, the team is showing hints of our nerves and a small flare-up results – fortunately, it is settled quickly. Finally, it is time to head out to meet the Minister. We are close to his office when a call comes, informing us that he has been called away on urgent business – and that our meeting has been rescheduled for tomorrow. We had been cautioned that this was a possibility, given the Minister’s position and responsibilities – so we head back with a mix of relief (at getting the additional time to prep better) and disappointment. We spend a fair bit of time rehearsing our sections and readying responses to questions we anticipated the audience might ask us.

IMG_6002Ready for showtime

 Thursday, and we have another early start. We do final-final edits, ready back-up material and head out to the presentation venue. Finally, it is time to start – and we take our seats. I lead off the presentation, expressing the team’s gratitude for the reception we received at each of the departments we visited, and the level of professionalism and preparedness that the FCTA employees displayed. I present our findings and recommendations, and Marvin takes over to present the roadmap and recommended next steps. Sam MC’s the Q&A session, and Divine and Maria respond to the audience questions. We finish in an hour, and are satisfied with the way the session went. Lunch is provided for the participants, and the caterers had thoughtfully provided take-away boxes for those observing Ramadan fasting.

On to the Minister’s office. We set up at his conference room and at 2 PM promptly, he walks in. All of the department heads are in attendance as well. We introduce ourselves to the minister, and Maria kick-offs the presentation. She smoothly hands off to each one of us in turn to present the details of each of the five key recommendations. Marvin closes with the roadmap and next steps. The Minister appears engaged throughout the meeting, and we see him taking notes. At the end, he asks several questions about the recommendations and wants to know more about the specifics of getting some of the recommendations off the ground. We finish the session in our allotted hour. The minister expresses his thanks to our team and the work –we are touched by his kind words. After photos with the team, he bids us farewell.

IMG_6005The ladies in their Nigerian outfits with the Head of the Road Traffic Department

Relief! This went well – our hard work paid off. Back at the hotel for a quick call with the IBM Smarter Cities Challenge leadership team to give them a summary of the day’s action. We let the SCC leaders know that Remy was an invaluable asset to the team –her dedication, connections and energy helped us immensely. We get a few brief moments of respite before we head out for a dinner arranged by the Permanent Secretary of FCTA for the team at the Obudu Grill at the Abuja Sheraton. All of the heads of the departments that we worked with were there, and we have a grand time. Coincidentally, the pianist who had entertained us at Nkoyo on our first weekend happened to be playing here!

Friday – We troop out of Room 107, our office for the past three weeks, one final time and head to the primary school we had visited the first week. This time, we bring them soccer balls – and spend an enjoyable half hour playing with the kids.



Next stop – the African Hair Convention at the Abuja Sheraton. Several attendees were staying at our hotel, and they’d asked us to check it out. We check out the products for sale. They have a hair braiding station and I ask the owner, Philip, whether he could braid my hair. He thinks I am pulling his leg – but I assure him I’m dead serious. He claims he can do magic with any hair type – but he’s full up now, and asks me to come back at 3 PM. We head to the poolside restaurant at the Sheraton for lunch, where Sam, Marvin and I shoot some pool while waiting for the food to arrive. I head back to see Philip at 3 PM – and he’s surprised that I am back – he wasn’t expecting it. He’s profusely sweating now– and pulls me aside to say that he really doesn’t know how to handle my hair. Alas – my plan to shock the wife and kids by showing up home in dreadlocks is dashed.

IMG_6057That’s famed Nollywood actress Kate Henshaw – the Angelina Jolie of Nigeria. At the African Hair Summit

Our final event in Abuja is a farewell reception arranged by Judy at an art gallery. Judy’s invited all the FCTA department heads, and several young professionals to the “mixer”. The art gallery is really nice, and I spend a fair bit of time walking around. There’s live music, and wine and canapes. Lots of pictures are taken. I chit-chat with the guests. There’s a cultural music and dance performance. Remi asks each of us from the IBM SCC team to say a few parting words about our time in Abuja, and the great time we had is reflected in the sincerity of our words of thanks. The DJ gets some of us dancing. A birthday cake is then brought in for Marvin – and we all sing him Happy Birthday. He sets out for the airport – he’s the first one of our team to head back home.

Music at the reception (YouTube link)

Cultural dance at the reception (YouTube link)


IMG_6083Last of the SCC team snaps – at the reception at the art gallery 

Amidst all of this, I hear talk of a pub trivia event taking place in the adjoining restaurant later that night. Nothing’s going to stand between me and some pub trivia, so I make my way in and insert myself into a team. The questions start and they’re a pretty interesting mix – there’s a visual pun round, a karaoke round, an audio round and a movie dialogs round. We were sitting in second place when Remi and I decide that its time to head back.

IMG_6077With my pub trivia team 

Saturday we do our final breakfast at the BluCabana. It is Maria’s birthday – and we get a card and a small cake for her.

IMG_6079Happy Birthday, Maria

 I say my goodbyes to Sam and Divine who head out to the airport at 11 AM and to Remi who leaves at noon. I finish up a few blog posts and head out for a workout at the gym. All that’s left to do is to pack up, head to the airport and trade my home of the past three weeks for my home.

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Pics from here and there…

IMG_2855Colorful agama at the hotel


 Church group at the Millennium Park


Aso Rock looming – Millennium Park

IMG_2895Millennium Park

IMG_5710Newspaper story about the Danish owner of the Nordic Hotel 


Abuja’s at roughly the same latitude as Kerala …at Masala Wahala restaurant

IMG_5756Cost of doing (your) business

IMG_5929 The National Mosque

IMG_3009Oh hi there !

IMG_3120 Serious armor – but how many cup holders does it have ? On display at the Transcorp Hilton

At the Obudu Grill, Sheraton Abuja

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The weekend

Friday couldn’t roll around soon enough for me, after the week I’d had. After a few debatable experiences with what passed for pizza, we decided to head out to Secret Garden, which came highly touted as a cool hangout spot that served good pizzas and pastas. The restaurant was inside the River Plate Park, which was our rendezvous point for the Abuja Hash outing the previous week.

The restaurant is packed with what looked like an expat-heavy crowd. The menu lists two pages of pizzas and has a long cocktail list. We get a bunch of pizzas and pastas – they’re good! The discussion around the dinner table veers wildly from topic to topic – plans for the weekend, updates from back home, President Trump’s first foreign trip – but we stay away from work talk.

IMG_5921.jpgSam gets Divine to massage bug spray on his scalp

By now, we are reasonably confident of our bearings and our way around town. We’ve been depending on Uber to move about – and it’s been safe, reliable and cheap.

Saturday morning, Marvin, Maria and I head to the US embassy annex for our weekly dose of pain aka CrossFit. The session is brutal, mainly because of the burning sun beating down on us. We finish the session with a celebratory selfie with Col. Baker, who was leading the cool-down session for the last time, as he was heading back to England. While waiting for our Uber back, we chatted with a few fellow punishment seekers. They were here in Abuja “with the USAID”, “Clinton Global Initiative”, “teaching at the American School” and so on. Mostly Americans, but I also hear a few British accents and a smattering of French and Spanish.

IMG_3185Selfie with Col. Baker. Notice the photo-bomber in the back

Back at the Nordic Hotel, the sight of the pool proves irresistible – so the three of us head there (to dispel any doubt, after we’d showered and changed out of the sweaty workout gear). This was my first time at the pool, though I’ve been tempted by the sight every time I’d worked out at the gym (BTW, I’m proud to report that I’ve been maintaining my 30 miles per week running average, despite the work load and the weather conditions).

The pool is refreshing as all get out. The pina colada hits the right spot. The torture of the past hour is a distant memory – I’m living the dream. I swim a few leisurely laps and lounge on the deck chair with my book. Meanwhile, Marvin challenges the two swim instructors to a 4 x 25 m individual medley. The swim instructors look like they are carved out of granite, with huge pecs and 0% body fat – but they don’t suspect that Marvin, a former collegiate swimmer, is hustling them. I stand by, ready to record the action. Maria flags the swimmers off. Marvin is slow coming off the blocks. At the end of the first lap, Marvin’s a bit behind – but then he turns the jets on and beats Instructor # 1 by two body lengths. Yay, Marvin!

(Click on the captions to see the hyperlinked YouTube videos)

Marvin Phelps

That afternoon, the team meets up to do the touristy things that we hadn’t had time to do yet. Our first stop is at the Bwari pottery village, some 30 kms from town. The ride to the place takes us through several bustling villages, where we see people selling everything from sofas to tires to clothes out in the open air. I note the high density of churches. When we turn into the pottery village, we see a crowd and hear loud music. Our guide leads us into the first of a series of “workshop huts” and starts explaining the process of making pottery. Each stage of the process is explained – and several are demoed. He takes the pottery wheel and expertly whips up a small vase (Unchained Melody is playing in the background – at least, in my head). While we were admiring his handiwork, a man dressed in a suit enters the hut and introduces himself as the owner of the place, and says that it is his wedding day today! He graciously invites us to attend, and we are touched by his hospitality. We take in the baking, glazing and final finishing processes and finish the tour at their showroom, picking up some keepsake pieces.


IMG_5959Charcoal-fired kiln 

Bwari pottery

We hurry on over to the “shamiana” where the festivities are taking place. There’s a band playing and several spectacularly attired guests are grooving. We are invited to take seats by the MC, introduced to the assemblage and asked to speak. We all manage to come up with impromptu speeches congratulating the bride and groom, Charity and Stephen, and offer them our best wishes. We witness the bride and groom step out for their first dance and the guests showering them with money. We have to be torn away from the delights of this unexpected event – but it is getting late, and we have other places to see.

The little drummer boy can’t hold it back – busting out his moves

Impromptu felicitations to the couple !

 Sameh can’t stay away from the music

Dancing and gifts at the wedding

IMG_5990Charity  & Stephen, the happy couple

Next stop – Lower Usuma dam, which supplies water to the denizens of Abuja. Our van is stopped by security folks at the entrance. Negotiations continue for a while, but ultimately, we fail to convince them to let us through. There’s some discussion whether we should pay their “security escort fee” of 2000 Naira – but we decide not to and head out. We get lunch at a Nigerian restaurant, Jevinik. The menu is unfamiliar – most restaurants we’d been to had explanations for the Nigerian menu items that we could understand, but this one just stated the options and left it at that – so extended interrogations with the waiter were required to figure out what each one of us wanted to try. The food arrives – it is tasty, but fiery.

 The IBM SCC team –  at a fortuitous roadside sign

On to Abuja Arts & Crafts Market – our third visit there. I’d scoped out a few things to take back home, and I pick them up, but not before some entertaining price negotiations. I offer up my honed-in India bargaining skills to my team mates – but I soon realize that Divine and Maria have raised price haggling to an exalted level.

Back to the hotel. After our late lunch, no one was really in the mood for dinner, so we settle for a glass of wine at the hotel lobby and deconstruct the happenings of the day.

Marvin and Sameh head out to Lagos on Sunday morning for a day trip. I decide to take it easy, and spend the entire day in my room, getting some much-needed alone time to restore the balance after all of the group socializing over the past couple of weeks. In a frenzy of blogging, I post two updates. I take care of some video and photo processing. By the evening, after my run, I am ready to re-establish contact with humanity. I coax people to join me at the BluCabana for dinner. Marvin and Sam are back from Lagos, and tell us about their trip, the highlight of which was their visit to the Badagry Slave Museum, which stands as a stark reminder of the horrors of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We are joined at the table by the Lebanese manager of the restaurant, Johnny – he has some funny stories. We are treated to some birthday cake from a nearby table where a group of young women were celebrating – delicious! We head back to our rooms ready to nod off, to no doubt emerge re-energized and ready to face our final week in Abuja !

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